Glossary

Technical term Meaning
Agrobacterium A genus of bacteria used for the development of transgenic plants, where genes are inserted into plants, by using bacteria as a natural vector of transformation.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Insect-toxic bacteria, particularly the Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. Genes that code for the production of this class of toxic proteins (cry) have been used in genetic engineering for the development of transgenic plants resistant to these pests.
Germplasm bank Conservation units of genetic material.
Cellular biology Science that studies the cell, its structural components and processes, through the use of a series of approaches and techniques, including molecular means.
Molecular biology Science that studies macromolecule biology and biological processes at molecular level.
Biotechnology Multidisciplinary science related to the application of technical and scientific principles, through the use of biological systems and living organisms or their derivatives to create or to alter products and processes.
Breeders Team of breeders.
Cultivars Plant species that have been improved by changing or introducing a trait they did not formerly hold.
Cellulosic ethanol Second Generation of Ethanol - Ethanol from Pulp.
Elite Event The event selected to be deregulated and become a commercial product.
Transgenic event Plant that received the insertion of an exogenous gene in a certain position of its genome, through transgenia (genetic transformation). In the process of genetic transformation, several cells are transformed, giving rise to various plants (events) that are evaluated to confirm the presence of the gene, position of the genome, the number of copies inserted, level of expression, etc.
Gene Basic unit of gene inheritance, ordered nucleotide sequence that comprises a segment of DNA whose product is a polypeptide.
Germplasm Genetic resources that preserve maximum variability within the species, for general research purposes, especially for genetic improvement.
Hybridization Natural or artificial cross-breeding of individuals of different species.
MACP Process carried out within the Base Poles, alongside with the R&D program, which consists in the production of seedlings of clones that stand out in the genetic improvement process. The objective is to produce seedlings to support the product development process and, in particular, to increase the availability of seedlings at the moment of release of the new CTC varieties. MACP enables initial seedling availability to be increased by more than 100 times and accelerates growth in elite variety market share by three years, maximizing CTC's customer benefits and the generation of income from royalties to CTC.
Phytosanitary measures Sanitary measure for the preservation or defense of plants.
Breeders Professionals with a background in genetics or genetic improvement, who deal with germplasm to exploit the existing genetic variability, for the development of new strains.
MPB Sugarcane planting form, by using pre-sprouted mini-billets.
Genetically modified organism An organism that has been transformed by the introduction and integration of one or more exogenous genes.
Parents Genitors
Bt plant Plant obtained by means of genetic transformation, containing genes of the Bacillus Thuringiensis bacteria, which promote the protein expression with insecticide effect.
Edaphoclimatic regions Regions with characteristics defined by environmental factors, such as climate, relief, lithology, temperature, air humidity, radiation, soil type, wind, atmospheric composition and rainfall. Understanding the edaphoclimatic regions is important to maximize yields of each sugarcane variety.
Royalties Amount paid for the use of the technology license of the varieties developed by CTC.
Rustification Process of progressive decrease in time or number of irrigations throughout the day, suspension of nitrogen fertilization, reduction of shading, pruning, etc. Rustification of seedlings results in physiological changes, which enable lower losses and better budding (establishment), after being transferred to the field under adverse conditions. It is intended, through the rustification of sugarcane seedlings, to increase tillering (number of buds), to improve rooting and increase the accumulation of reserves, so as to generate more resistant propagules, capable of sprouting in the field under different conditions.
Seedlings A young plant that has grown from a seed.
Billet A piece of cane stalk (20 cm).
Traits Agronomic feature intended to be introduced via transgenia. Ex: insect resistance, drought tolerance, increased productivity, increased sugar content, disease resistance, herbicide resistance, etc.
Varieties Subdivision of species. Plant produced by artificial selection, monitored. Each variety has its own characteristics.
Nurseries Production area of varieties, intended for the supply of high quality agronomic and phytosanitary seedlings, for the formation of commercial production fields.